Wednesday, March 26, 2014

State lawmaker pushes hemp as cash crop for Hawaii

State lawmaker pushes hemp as cash crop for Hawaii

Posted: Feb 05, 2014 5:04 PM CST Updated: Feb 05, 2014 10:08 PM CST

Friday, March 21, 2014

The Use of Hemp Milk to Treat Tuberculosis

This Story was Shared from:     www.globalhemp.com  http://www.globalhemp.com/

The Use of Hemp Milk to Treat Tuberculosis

By: Arthur Hanks Posted in Articles
In the following clip, Garnet Kranz of Killaloe, Ontario, Canada speaks about his family’s history of hemp milk being used to treat tuberculosis (TB). When his grandmother was a girl, she spent time in South America, where there was a Tuberculosis sanitorium run by priests. At this hospital a hemp milk formula, possibly fermented, and thick enough to be drunk with a straw, was used to treat TB. The exact recipe and clinical usage is unknown.

Hemp Milk and the White Plague

Tuberculosis (TB) is a persistent disease that has dogged human populations throughout history. It was sometimes referred to as Consumption, because sufferers would “waste away” as they were consumed by the illness. Pulmonary tuberculosis, caused by bacteria infecting the lungs, was the most common form. TB was dreaded as “The White Plague” as it used to be the leading source of death in the USA.
One American folk belief centered in New England in the 18th and 19th century links vampirism with TB.1 The bacterial form of the disease would lead to infection of family members, leading some to think a dead relative had returned from the grave and was feeding off their family!
Advances in treatment, vaccinations and strong public health programs helped to diminish TB’s incidence in the 20th century. It’s not on the public’s radar. However, TB is still very common in the developing world, where most of the planet’s population lives poverty markedly increases the risk factor for the disease. And even at home, some disadvantaged groups remain at risk. For example, in Canada, rates of infection are 10 times higher on Native reserves. People with weakened immune systems — the elderly or AIDS/HIV victims — remain quite vulnerable.
An innovative Czech study from the 1930’s, right before World War Two, used hemp seeds in a nutritional therapeutic trial to treat tuberculosis. At a hospital in Jince (south west of Prague), patients (all poor urban youth suffering from TB and aged 6-20) were given a daily feeding of hemp milk. The formula included a measure of 1¾ – 2¾ ounces (50-80 grams) of ground hemp seed that was mixed with lightly heated milk 140-176° F (60-80° C), stirred, pressed and then strained to remove the seed hull and grit. In this study, oat flakes were also added — to add body and as a source of aleurone, also considered important.
The researchers Drs. Sirek and Kabelik, chose hemp and oats for pragmatic reasons. They were easy to digest and widely available in Bohemia, even in tough times. The hemp milk & oatmeal mix supplemented a diet designed to be easy on the liver. The trial was continued on an ad hoc basis during WWII, when food shortages were even more acute due to the German occupation. Ten more children were treated.
Sirek and Kabelik found their patients were able to arrest their weight loss, recover their appetites, and due to their improved health were able to recover from TB infection. In a paper presented in the 1950’s, the researchers concluded that the “hemp seed edestine … was the only substantive base of the whole treatment.”2
The concept was solid and replicable. Basically, in order to fight TB, foods had to be able to help the body’s organs and tissue rebuild. Hemp seed — a nutritionally significant source of edestin and arginine proteins, and today also known to be a powerful source of Essentially Fatty Acids — proved to be a low cost and very method of helping sick children get better.
Children Treated with Hemp for Tuberculosis
Children Treated with Hemp for Tuberculosis
A short oral report recounts that a similar therapy was used in a hospital in South America in the 1930’s. According to Garnet Kranz of Killaloe, ON, the seed mix was quite strong, almost vacuum packed, and had to be drank with a straw. Afterwards, the pulp would be eaten in order to fill the stomach.
Today, there’s been certainly many advances in medical science, including chemotherapy, powerful antibiotics and surgery, but complimentary and non-invasive dietary solutions remain pertinent, and not just with TB, but in many conditions.
With dehulled hemp seed available on the market, consumers can easily make their own hemp milk without the grit. Pre-made and mixed hemp milk is also sold by the carton, available in different flavors and formulas.
But heath is not just for sick people. Hemp foods, in all their forms, have a lot to offer.

Footnotes

  1. Bioarcheological and Biocultural Evidence for the New England Vampire Folk Belief
  2. Importance of hemp seeds in the tuberculosis therapy

About the Author

 
is a Canadian writer who has been covering the growing hemp industry on a professional basis since 1997. He has contributed to numerous farm and nonfarm publications regarding the many aspects of industrial hemp. In 1999, he started the Hemp Commerce & Farming Report, later renamed The Hemp Report, as an online magazine to serve and promote the North American Hemp Industry.

Cannabinoids Occur Naturally in Human Breast Milk

The same cannabinoids found in marijuana are also found in breast milk. This may initially sound shocking to some, but the fact is that these cannabinoids have an important purpose in the growth and development of babies. Cannabinoids promote hunger in newborns, which ensures both an adequate milk supply in the mother and enough nutrition for baby.

The Purpose

Babies have to learn how to eat after birth. Cannabinoid receptors in the brain bind to the chemicals in breast milk to trigger a hunger response in babies. This response helps babies to nurse frequently. Frequent nursing is very important during the first months of life as baby learns how to eat. The brain and body of a newborn rapidly develops during the first year of life. Breast milk contains everything that a baby needs to develop, but the baby must first learn how to suckle. When cannabinoid receptors in the brain are activated, newborns experience a natural response that improves the coordination of muscles used to drink breast milk.
The naturally occurring cannabinoids in breast milk have a specific biological purpose that helps infants gain weight after birth. The same response that encourages an infant to eat is reflected among cancer patients who use medical marijuana to regain their appetite after treatment based caused severe weight loss and nausea. The fact that the human body has receptors for cannabinoids is important to consider. The cannabinoids in breast milk are the same as those found in marijuana. As a medicinal plant, marijuana can be beneficial for many reasons.
When used medicinally, marijuana can improve immune function and reduce the symptoms of many diseases. Cannabis is a natural pain reliever that has been used in some states as an alternative medicine for cancer, glaucoma, and for anxiety and depression among adults. The use of marijuana among cancer patients has been well documented as reducing the severe side effects of cancer treatment, which can include nausea, tiredness, vomiting, and depression. In modern society, marijuana is slowly becoming a viable complement to traditional medical treatments. According to HerbalMission.org, cannabis is useful in the treatment of Alzhimer’s disease, migranes, premenstrual syndrome, and seizures.

The Benefits of Cannabis

Cannabis has an effect on both the central nervous system and the immune system. BBC News reports that multiple sclerosis sufferers have experienced relief from symptoms of the disease by using cannabis extracts after other treatments failed. The relaxing properties of marijuana extracts can also be useful in the treatment of some mood disorders. The true potential of marijuana, especially in its natural form, is yet to be determined because of the stigma attached to the use of the plant. Luckily, people have started to realize that cannabis is a truly medicinal plant that can improve health while promoting a sense of well-being when used properly.
Fresh marijuana leaves can be juiced to create a healthy drink that contains dozens of beneficial cannabinoids. The use of marijuana as a natural remedy to illness and disease dates back thousands of years. It is only in recent history that the use of cannabis has become taboo. With more people fighting illness and disease than ever, the use of medical marijuana is growing. Cannabinoids, and cannabis, are safe and effective in the treatment of many different conditions. That human body was designed to make use of cannabinoids from birth. Natural cannabis,rather than extracts, is the best way to get the health benefits of marijuana.

Story Found, and Shared From:http://primalhealthnews.com/      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JeK0zBg_sKA&feature=player_embedded

Saturday, March 15, 2014

Hemp Processing explained by, President Shaun Crew, Hemp Oil Canada

American Farmers can look forward to Growing this Productive Crop Soon!
Thank you to Our Friends In Canada, They will be able to help America Grow and Process this Valuable Resource!

Friday, March 14, 2014

New News From Canada that Just might Peak American Farmers to continue the Industrial Hemp Market / Farming In America

(Hot Off The Press)
Farmers high on hemp as returns beat canola

Strong prices have led to ‘unprecedented’ interest in the crop, says Hemp Oil Canada rep
Posted by
in        
Man speaking in front of viewscreen.
Kevin Friesen, seed production manager for Hemp Oil Canada and a hemp grower himself, explains how to grow the Prairie’s newest crop at a recent agronomy workshop at the Food Development Centre in Portage la Prairie.
photo: Daniel Winters
 
Hemp acres in Manitoba are set to shatter records again this year as interest in the crop rises to an unprecedented level, the seed production manager for Hemp Oil Canada said last week.
Kevin Friesen told about 30 farmers meeting at the Food Development Centre here that he anticipates 90,000 acres of contracted production this spring, up from about 67,000 last year, and way, way up from just 8,000 acres in 2007. The crop was approved for production in Canada in 1998.
“Normally, people migrate towards hemp when it’s about twice as profitable as canola,” said Friesen, who estimated that a good crop of conventional hemp, at about 40 bushels to the acre contracted at 70 cents per pound will rake in gross revenue of $700/acre compared to about $240/acre for canola.
“It is an easy crop to grow, but you have to be willing to put in extra time and management to be successful,” he added.
In Manitoba, the most popular variety is CRS-1, but Finola and CFX-1 and 2 are the mainstays in Alberta and Saskatchewan.
Finola, brought in from Finland in 1998, has the smallest seed, with 1,000 seeds tipping the scale at 13 grams compared to CRS-1 at 17 g/1,000. Finola matures in 100 days, CFX-1 and 2 at 103-105 days, and CRS-1 at 110 days.
Finola is the shortest variety, but with hemp, “height expression” varies according to the latitude where it is planted. The higher the latitude, the taller hemp grows, and vice versa, said Friesen, noting that in southern Ontario, Finola only grows knee-high, but 800 km north of Edmonton, it can reach eight to 10 feet.
Shorter plants are easier to harvest, but taller plants cope better with weeds. It matures according to hours of daylight, so pushing back the seeding date can ensure a shorter crop at harvest.
The herbicide Assure II, already allowed in Eastern Canada, may be approved for use here by spring, becoming the first herbicide registered for use on the crop.
A handful of dual-purpose, grain and fibre varieties have also been developed by the Parkland Industrial Hemp Growers (PIHG), but a market for hemp fibre may still be a few years away due to delays at the Gilbert Plains processing plant.
Jeff Kostiuk, acting diversification specialist with the Parkland Crop Diversification Foundation based in Roblin and provincial hemp agronomy contact, said that it’s still not too late to apply for permission from Health Canada.
Permits are good for one year, and growers need only submit field GPS co-ordinates from Google Earth, proof of consent from the landowner, and agree to a criminal record check.
Only pedigreed seed is allowed because farm-saved seed can spontaneously boost THC levels — the compound that gives marijuana its buzz. Crop samples must be submitted for testing by an approved sampler at a cost of $300 per field, but some hemp varieties such as CRS-1 are exempt from that requirement due to consistently low THC levels.

More from the Manitoba Co-operator website: Legalization down south may be a buzz kill up north

Seeding is best at half-inch depth into well-drained, warm, moist soil at 8-10 C at a rate of 25 pounds per acre at low fan speed to avoid seed damage. Research shows seed mortality averages 50-70 per cent regardless of seeding density or variety, and best results for grain come with two to 12 plants per square foot due to the crop’s ability to fill in thin spots. Row cropping hemp at 22-inch spacing works well, too.
Hemp is a big plant that is “very hungry” for nutrients, especially potash which goes mainly into the stalks, said Kostiuk. It loves nitrogen, and especially well-manured fields.
Some of the best hemp growers are organic farmers who grow alfalfa for hay for three years followed by silage peas and hemp. The crop, which pays $1.25 per bushel for organic, does well for them because a mid-June seeding date allows for a few weeks of tillage to control weeds.
Disease issues with hemp are minimal. Gophers are the most serious pest.
Harvest is best done while the plants are still a bit green, and many have found that a John Deere 9600 combine with a draper header works best. Knives must be new or in good shape, and setting the apron three to four feet high to avoid the fibrous stalks prevents plugging.
“Don’t put hemp fibre through the combine if you don’t have to,” said Friesen.
Residue can be a headache, he added, but some farmers use a forage harvester to chop up the stalks, which are then harrowed into piles and burned.

Sunday, March 9, 2014

Antibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study

Antibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study

Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Alimentari, Farmaceutiche e Farmacologiche, Università del Piemonte Orientale, Via Bovio 6, 28100 Novara, Italy, Consorzio per lo Studio dei Metaboliti Secondari (CSMS), Viale S. Ignazio 13, 09123 Cagliari, Italy, Centre for Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, The School of Pharmacy, University of London, 29-39 Brunswick Square, London WC1N 1AX, U.K., and CRA-CIN Centro di Ricerca per le Colture Industriali, Sede distaccata di Rovigo, Via Amendola 82, 45100 Rovigo, Italy
J. Nat. Prod., 2008, 71 (8), pp 1427–1430
DOI: 10.1021/np8002673
Publication Date (Web): August 6, 2008
Copyright © 2008 The American Chemical Society and American Society of Pharmacognosy
* To whom correspondence should be addressed. Tel: +39 0321 373744 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting +39 0321 373744 FREE  end_of_the_skype_highlighting (G.A.); +44 207 753 5913 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting +44 207 753 5913 FREE  end_of_the_skype_highlighting (S.G.). Fax: +39 0321 375621 (G.A.); +44 207 753 5909 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting +44 207 753 5909 FREE  end_of_the_skype_highlighting (S.G.). E-mail: appendino@pharm.unipmn.it (G.A.); simon.gibbons@pharmacy.ac.uk (S.G.)., †
Università del Piemonte Orientale.
, ‡
Consorzio per lo Studio dei Metaboliti Secondari.
,
University of London.
, §
Centro Ricerca Colture Industriali.

Abstract

Abstract Image
Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) has long been known to contain antibacterial cannabinoids, whose potential to address antibiotic resistance has not yet been investigated. All five major cannabinoids (cannabidiol (1b), cannabichromene (2), cannabigerol (3b), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (4b), and cannabinol (5)) showed potent activity against a variety of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains of current clinical relevance. Activity was remarkably tolerant to the nature of the prenyl moiety, to its relative position compared to the n-pentyl moiety (abnormal cannabinoids), and to carboxylation of the resorcinyl moiety (pre-cannabinoids). Conversely, methylation and acetylation of the phenolic hydroxyls, esterification of the carboxylic group of pre-cannabinoids, and introduction of a second prenyl moiety were all detrimental for antibacterial activity. Taken together, these observations suggest that the prenyl moiety of cannabinoids serves mainly as a modulator of lipid affinity for the olivetol core, a per se poorly active antibacterial pharmacophore, while their high potency definitely suggests a specific, but yet elusive, mechanism of activity.
Several studies have associated the abuse of marijuana (Cannabis sativa L. Cannabinaceae) with an increase in opportunistic infections,(1) and inhalation of marijuana has indeed been shown to interfere with the production of nitric oxide from pulmonary macrophages, impairing the respiratory defense mechanisms against pathogens and causing immunosuppression.(2) The association of C. sativa with a decreased protection against bacterial infections is paradoxical, since this plant has long been known to contain powerful antibacterial agents.(3) Thus, preparations from C. sativa were investigated extensively in the 1950s as highly active topical antiseptic agents for the oral cavity and the skin and as antitubercular agents.(3) Unfortunately, most of these investigations were done at a time when the phytochemistry of Cannabis was still in its infancy, and the remarkable antibacterial profile of the plant could not be related to any single, structurally defined and specific constituent. Evidence that pre-cannabidiol (1a) is a powerful plant antibiotic was, nevertheless, obtained,(4) and more recent investigations have demonstrated, to various degrees, antibacterial activity for the nonpsychotropic cannabinoids cannabichromene (CBC, 2),(5) cannabigerol (CBG, 3b),(6) and cannabidiol (1b),(7) as well as for the psychotropic agent Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, 4b).(7) These observations, and the inactivity of several noncannabinoid constituents of C. sativa as antibacterial agents, suggest that cannabinoids and their precursors are the most likely antibacterial agents present in C. sativa preparations.(8) However, differences in bacterial strains and end-points make it difficult to compare the data reported in these scattered studies, and the overall value of C. sativa as an antibacterial agent is therefore not easy to assess.
There are currently considerable challenges with the treatment of infections caused by strains of clinically relevant bacteria that show multidrug-resistance (MDR), such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and the recently emerged and extremely drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis XDR-TB. New antibacterials are therefore urgently needed, but only one new class of antibacterial has been introduced in the last 30 years.(9) Despite the excellent antibacterial activity of many plant secondary metabolites(10) and the ability of some of them to modify the resistance associated with MDR strains(11) and efflux pumps,(12) plants are still a substantially untapped source of antimicrobial agents.
These considerations, as well as the observation that cross-resistance to microbial and plant antibacterial agents is rare,(10) make C. sativa a potential source of compounds to address antibiotic resistance, one of the most urgent issues in antimicrobial therapy. To obtain structure−activity data and define a possible microbiocidal cannabinoid pharmacophore, we investigated the antibacterial profile of the five major cannabinoids, of their alkylation and acylation products, and of a selection of their carboxylic precursors (pre-cannabinoids) and synthetic positional isomers (abnormal cannabinoids).

Results and Discussion


The antibacterial cannabinoid chemotype is poorly defined, as is the molecular mechanism of its activity. Since many simple phenols show antimicrobial properties, it does not seem unreasonable to assume that the resorcinol moiety of cannabinoids serves as the antibacterial pharmacophore, with the alkyl, terpenoid, and carboxylic appendices modulating its activity. To gain insight into the microbiocidal cannabinoid pharmacophore, we have investigated how the nature of the terpenoid moiety, its relative position compared to the n-pentyl group, and the effect of carboxylation of the resorcinyl moiety are translated biologically, assaying the major cannabinoids and a selection of their precursors and regioisomeric analogues against drug-resistant bacteria of clinical relevance. Within these, we have selected a panel of clinically relevant Staphylococcus aureus strains that includes the (in)famous EMRSA-15, one of the main epidemic methicillin-resistant strains,(13) and SA-1199B, a multidrug-resistant strain that overexpresses the NorA efflux mechanism, the best characterized antibiotic efflux pump in this species.(14) SA-1199B also possesses a gyrase mutation that, in addition to NorA, confers a high level of resistance to certain fluoroquinolones. A macrolide-resistant strain (RN4220),(15) a tetracycline-resistant line overexpressing the TetK efflux pump (XU212),(16) and a standard laboratory strain (ATCC25923) completed the bacterial panel.
Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, 4b), cannabidiol (CBD, 1b), cannabigerol (CBG, 3b), cannabichromene (CBC, 2), and cannabinol (CBN, 5) are the five most common cannabinoids.(17) They could be obtained in high purity (>98%) by isolation from strains of C. sativa producing a single major cannabinoid (THC, CBD, CBG), by total synthesis (CBC),(6) or by semisynthesis (CBN).(18) Their antimicrobial properties are listed in Table 1. All compounds showed potent antibacterial activity, with MIC values in the 0.5−2 μg/mL range. Activity was exceptional against some of these strains, in particular the multidrug-resistant (MDR) SA-1199B, which has a high level of resistance to certain fluoroquinolones. Also noteworthy is the potent activity demonstrated against EMRSA-15 and EMRSA-16, the major epidemic methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains occurring in U.K. hospitals.(13, 19) These activities compare highly favorably with the standard antibiotics for these strains. The potent activity against strains possessing the NorA and TetK efflux transporters suggests that cannabinoids are not substrates for the most common resistance mechanisms to current antibacterial agents, making them attractive antibacterial leads.
Table 1. MIC (μg/mL) Values of Cannabinoids and Their Analogues toward Various Drug-Resistant Strains of Staphylococcus aureusab
compoundSA-1199BRN-4220XU212ATCC25923EMRSA-15EMRSA-16
1a222222
1b1110.511
2221222
3a424424
3b111121
3f64c64ccc
4a848484
4b211120.5
511111c
6111111
7210.512c
8323216161632
106464641286464
norfloxacin321410.5128
erythromycin0.2564>1280.25>128>128
tetracycline0.250.251280.250.1250.125
oxacillin0.250.251280.12532>128
a
Compounds 1cg, 3ce, 3g, and 9 exhibited MIC values of >128 μg/mL for all organisms in which they were evaluated.
b
Compound 11 exhibited MIC values of >256 μg/mL for all organisms in which they were evaluated.
c
Not tested.
Given their nonpsychotropic profiles, CBD (1b) and CBG (3b) seemed especially promising, and were selected for further structure−activity studies. Thus, acetylation and methylation of their phenolic hydroxyls (compounds 1ce and 3ce, respectively) were both detrimental for activity (MIC >100 μg/mL), in accordance with the essential role of the phenolic hydroxyls in the antibacterial properties. However, in light of the potent activity of the monophenols CBC (2), THC (4b), and CBN (5), it was surprising that monomethylation of the diphenols CBD (1b) and CBG (3b) was so poorly tolerated in terms of antibacterial activity.
Cannabinoids are the products of thermal degradation of their corresponding carboxylic acids (pre-cannabinoids).(17) Investigation of the antibacterial profile of the carboxylated versions of CBD, CBG, and THC (compounds 1a, 3a, and 4a, respectively) showed a substantial maintenance of activity. On the other hand, methylation of the carboxylic group (compounds 1f and 3f, respectively) caused a marked decrease of potency, as did esterification with phenethyl alcohol (compounds 1g and 3g, respectively). This operation is associated with a potentiation of the antibacterial properties of phenolic acids, as exemplified by phenethyl caffeate (CAPE), the major antibacterial from propolis, compared to caffeic acid.(20) Remarkably, the synthetic abnormal cannabinoids abn-CBD (6)(21) and abn-CBG (7)(22) showed antibacterial activity comparable to, although slightly less potent than, their corresponding natural products, while olivetol (10) showed modest activity against all six strains, with MICs of 64−128 μg/mL, and resorcinol (11) did not exhibit any activity even at 256 μg/mL. Thus, the pentyl chain and the monoterpene moiety greatly enhance the activity of resorcinol.
Taken together, these observations show that the cannabinoid antibacterial chemotype is remarkably tolerant to structural modification of the terpenoid moiety and its positional relationship with the n-pentyl chain, suggesting that these residues serve mainly as modulators of lipid affinity, and therefore cellular bioavailability. This view was substantiated by the marked decrease of activity observed when the antibacterial activity of CBG (3b) was compared to that of its polar analogue carmagerol (8).(23) The results against the resistant strains confirm this suggestion, and it is likely that the increased hydrophilicity caused by the addition of two hydroxyls greatly reduces the cellular bioavailability by substantially reducing membrane permeability. Conversely, the addition of a further prenyl moiety, as in the bis-prenylated cannabinoid 9,(21) while increasing membrane solubility, may result in poorer aqueous solubility and therefore a lower intracellular concentration, similarly leading to a substantial loss of activity. A single unfunctionalized terpenyl moiety seems therefore ideal in terms of lipophilicity balance for the antibacterial activity of olivetol derivatives. The great potency of cannabinoids suggests a specific interaction with a bacterial target, whose identity is, however, still elusive.
Given the availability of C. sativa strains producing high concentrations of nonpsychotropic cannabinoids, this plant represents an interesting source of antibacterial agents to address the problem of multidrug resistance in MRSA and other pathogenic bacteria. This issue has enormous clinical implications, since MRSA is spreading throughout the world and, in the United States, currently accounts for more deaths each year than AIDS.(24) Although the use of cannabinoids as systemic antibacterial agents awaits rigorous clinical trials and an assessment of the extent of their inactivation by serum,(25) their topical application to reduce skin colonization by MRSA seems promising, since MRSA resistant to mupirocin, the standard antibiotic for this indication, are being detected at a threatening rate.(26) Furthermore, since the cannabinoid anti-infective chemotype seems remarkably tolerant to modifications in the prenyl moiety, semipurified mixtures of cannabinoids could also be used as cheap and biodegradable antibacterial agents for cosmetics and toiletries, providing an alternative to the substantially much less potent synthetic preservatives, many of which are currently questioned for their suboptimal safety and environmental profile.(27)

Experimental Section


General Experimental Procedures
IR spectra were obtained on a Shimadzu DR 8001 spectrophotometer. 1H NMR (300 MHz) and 13C NMR (75 MHz) spectra were obtained at room temperature with a JEOL Eclipse spectrometer. The spectra were recorded in CDCl3, and the solvent signals (7.26 and 77.0 ppm, respectively) were used as reference. The chemical shifts (δ) are given in ppm, and the coupling constants (J) in Hz. Silica gel 60 (70−230 mesh) and Lichroprep RP-18 (25−40 mesh) were used for gravity column chromatography. Reactions were monitored by TLC on Merck 60 F254 (0.25 mm) plates and were visualized by UV inspection and/or staining with 5% H2SO4 in ethanol and heating. Organic phases were dried with Na2SO4 before evaporation. All known cannabinoids were identified according to their physical and spectroscopic data.(28) Semisynthetic cannabinoids 1cf, and 3cf were prepared and identified according to their corresponding literature references.(22, 29, 30) Synthetic [abnormal (6,(21) 7(6)) and polyprenyl (9)(21)] cannabinoids were synthesized and characterized according to the literature.
Plant Material
The three strains of Cannabis sativa used for the isolation of THC, CBD, and CBG came from greenhouse cultivation at CRA-CIN, Rovigo (Italy), where voucher specimens are kept for each of them, and were collected in September 2006. The isolation and manipulation of all cannabinoids were done in accordance with their legal status (License SP/101 of the Ministero della Salute, Rome, Italy).
Isolation of Cannabinoids (1b, 3b, 4b)
The powdered plant material (100 g) was distributed in a thin layer on cardboard and heated at 120 °C for 2 h in a ventilated oven to affect decarboxylation, then extracted with acetone (ratio solvent to plant material 3:1, ×3). The residue (6.5 g for the CBD chemotype, 4.1 g for the CBG chemotype, 7.4 g for the THC chemotype) was purified by gravity column chromatography on silica gel (ratio stationary phase to extract 6:1) using a petroleum ether−ether gradient. Fractions eluted with petroleum ether−ether (9:1) afforded 1b (628 mg, 0.63%, from the CBD chemotype) and 3b (561 mg, 0.56%, from the CBG chemotype), precipitated from hot hexane to obtain white powders. Crude THC (3.2 g, 3.2%, from the THC chemotype) was obtained as a greenish oil, part of which (400 mg) was further purified by RP-18 flash chromatography with methanol−water (1:1) as eluant, affording 4b as a colorless oil (315 mg).
Isolation of Pre-cannabinoids (1a, 3a, 4a)
The powdered plant material (100 g) was extracted with acetone (ratio solvent to plant material 5:1, ×3). After removal of the solvent, the residue (7.7 g for the CBD chemotype, 4.9 g for the CBG chemotype, 7.9 g for the THC chemotype) was fractionated by vacuum chromatography on RP-18 silica gel (ratio stationary phase to extract 5:1) using methanol−water (75:25) as eluant. Fractions of 100 mL were taken, and those containing pre-cannabinoids were pooled, concentrated to ca. half-volume at 30 °C, saturated with NaCl, and extracted with EtOAc. After removal of the solvent, the residue was further purified by gravity column chromatography on silica gel (ratio stationary phase to crude compound 5:1) using a petroleum ether−EtOAc gradient (from 8:2 to 5:5) to afford 1.59 g (1.6%) of 1a from the CBD chemotype, 0.93 g (0.93%) of 3a from the CBG chemotype, and 2.1 g (2.1%) of 4a from the THC chemotype. All pre-cannabinoids were obtained as white foams that resisted crystallization.
Synthesis of CBC (2) and CBN (5)
CBG (2) was synthesized from olivetol,(6) and CBN was prepared from THC (6) by aromatization with sulfur.(18)
Mitsunobu Esterification of Pre-cannabinoids (synthesis of 3g as an example)
To a cooled (ice bath) solution of 3a (360 mg, 1.1 mmol) in dry CH2Cl2 (4 mL) were added sequentially phenethyl alcohol (92 μL, 0.76 mmol, 0.75 molar equiv), triphenylphosphine (TPP) (220 mg, 0.84 mmol, 0.80 molar equiv), and diisopropyldiazodicarboxylate (DIAD) (228 μL, 1.1 mmol, 1 molar equiv). At the end of the addition, the cooling bath was removed, and the reaction was stirred at room temperature. After 16 h, the reaction was worked up by evaporation, and the residue was dissolved in toluene and cooled at 4 °C overnight to remove most of the TPPO-dihydroDIAD adduct. The filtrate was evaporated and purified by gravity column chromatography on silica gel (10 g, petroleum ether as eluant) to afford 126 mg (32%) of 3g. Under the same reaction conditions, the yield of 1g from 1a was 26%.
Pre-cannabigerol Phenethyl Ester (3g):
colorless foam; IR νKBrmax 3746, 3513, 3313, 1715, 1589, 1421, 1274, 1164, 980, 804, 690 cm−1; 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 12.08 (1H, s), 7.25 (5H, m), 6.02 (1H, s), 5.98 (1H, s), 5,25 (1H, br t, J = 7.0 Hz), 5.01 (1H, br t, J = 6.5 Hz), 4.56 (2H, t, J = 6.6 Hz), 3.40 (2H, d, J = 7.3 Hz), 3.1 (2H, t, J = 6.6 Hz), 2.7 (2H, t, J = 6.6 Hz), 2.05 (4H, m), 1.79 (3H, s), 1.65 (3H, s), 1.57 (3H, s), 1.24 (6H, m), 0.88 (3H, t, J = 7.1 Hz); 13C NMR (75 MHz, CDCl3) δ 172.1 (s), 162.7 (s), 159.5 (s), 148.8 (s), 139.1 (s), 137.4 (d), 132.1 (s), 128.8 (d), 126.8 (d), 125.9 (d), 121.5 (d), 111.5 (s), 110.8 (s), 65.8 (t), 39.8 (t), 36.6 (t), 35.0 (t), 32.0 (t), 31.5 (t), 26.5 (t), 25.8 (q), 22.2 (t), 17.8 (q), 16.3 (q), 14.2 (q); CIMS m/z [M + H] 465 [C30H40O4 + H].
Pre-cannabidiol Phenethyl Ester (1g):
colorless oil; IR (KBr) νmax 3587, 3517, 3423, 3027, 1642, 1499, 1425, 1274, 1172, 1143, 980, 894 cm−1; 1HNMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 12.13 (1H, s), 6.23 (5H, m), 6.48 (1H, s), 6.19 (1H, s), 5,55 (1H, s), 4.52 (3H, m), 4.4 (1H, s), 4.08 (1H, br s), 3.08 (2H, t, J = 7.0 Hz), 2.7 (2H, m), 2.11 (1H, m), 1.78 (3H, s), 1.71 (3H, s), 1.5 (4H, m), 1.28 (6H, m), 0.88 (3H, t, J = 6.9 Hz); 13C NMR (75 MHz, CDCl3) δ 172.2 (s), 171.5 (s), 163.5 (s), 160.0 (s), 148.8 (s), 147.0 (s), 145.9 (s), 140.2 (s), 137.4 (s), 128.7 (d), 126.7 (d), 124.0 (d), 114.4 (t), 112.3 (d), 105.8 (s), 65.6 (t), 46.6 (d), 39.1 (t), 37.0 (d), 31.9 (d), 31.5 (t), 27.8 (t), 25.3 (q), 22.6 (t), 21.9 (t), 18.5 (q), 14.1 (q); CIMS m/z [M + H] 463 [C30H38O4 + H].
Bacterial Strains and Chemicals
A standard S. aureus strain (ATCC 25923) and a clinical isolate (XU212), which possesses the TetK efflux pump and is also a MRSA strain, were obtained from E. Udo.(16) Strain RN4220, which has the MsrA macrolide efflux pump, was provided by J. Cove.(30) EMRSA-15(13) and EMRSA-16(19) were obtained from Paul Stapleton. Strain SA-1199B, which overexpresses the NorA MDR efflux pump, was the gift of Professor Glenn Kaatz.(14) Tetracycline, norfloxacin, erythromycin, and oxacillin were obtained from Sigma Chemical Co. Oxacillin was used in place of methicillin as recommended by the NCCLS. Mueller-Hinton broth (MHB; Oxoid) was adjusted to contain 20 mg/L Ca2+ and 10 mg/L Mg2+.
Antibacterial Assays
Overnight cultures of each strain were made up in 0.9% saline to an inoculum density of 5 × 105 cfu by comparison with a MacFarland standard. Tetracycline and oxacillin were dissolved directly in MHB, whereas norfloxacin and erythromycin were dissolved in DMSO and then diluted in MHB to give a starting concentration of 512 μg/mL. Using Nunc 96-well microtiter plates, 125 μL of MHB was dispensed into wells 1−11. Then, 125 μL of the test compound or the appropriate antibiotic was dispensed into well 1 and serially diluted across the plate, leaving well 11 empty for the growth control. The final volume was dispensed into well 12, which being free of MHB or inoculum served as the sterile control. Finally, the bacterial inoculum (125 μL) was added to wells 1−11, and the plate was incubated at 37 °C for 18 h. A DMSO control (3.125%) was also included. All MICs were determined in duplicate. The MIC was determined as the lowest concentration at which no growth was observed. A methanolic solution (5 mg/mL) of 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliium bromide (MTT; Lancaster) was used to detect bacterial growth by a color change from yellow to blue.

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