Friday, September 28, 2012

Cannabis-like chemical combats chief genetic cause of autism

Wednesday, 26 September 2012

Natural cannabis-like chemicals in the brain may help combat the leading genetic cause of autism, research has shown.
Scientists linked blockages in a signalling pathway dependent on the compounds, called 2-AG endocannabinoid transmitters, with symptoms of Fragile X syndrome.
Correcting the fault with drugs led to dramatic behavioural improvements in mice with a version of the condition.
Fragile X syndrome is the most common known genetic cause of autism.
It results from a mutation in the FMR1 gene on the female X chromosome. Men possess one copy of the chromosome, paired with a male Y chromosome, and women two.
Boys are much more likely to be born with Fragile X than girls. This is thought to be because with two X chromosomes, a defect in one may be compensated for by the other.
People with the syndrome suffer mental impairment, learning difficulties, and may be hyperactive or impulsive. They also possess notable physical characteristics such as an elongated face, flat feet and large ears.
The scientists, writing in the journal Nature Communications, stress that while their discovery may help people with Fragile X syndrome it will not provide a cure.
"What we hope is to one day increase the ability of people with Fragile X syndrome to socialise and engage in normal cognitive functions," said lead researcher Professor Daniele Piomelli, from the University of California at Irvine in the United States.
The study was the first to identify the role of endocannabinoids in the neurobiology of Fragile X, she said.
About endocannabinoids
Endocannabinoid compounds are created naturally in the body and share a similar chemical structure with THC, the primary psychoactive component of the marijuana plant, Cannabis.
Endocannabinoids are distinctive because they link with protein molecule receptors -- called cannabinoid receptors -- on the surface of cells. For instance, when a person smokes marijuana, the cannabinoid THC activates these receptors. And because the body's natural cannabinoids control a variety of factors -- such as pain, mood and appetite -- they're attractive targets for drug discovery and development.
Piomelli is one of the world's leading endocannabinoid researchers. His groundbreaking work is showing that this system can be exploited by new treatments to combat anxiety, pain, depression and obesity.
More information:

Read more:

Ingredient found in cannabis to be tested in fight against advanced cancers

Ingredient found in cannabis to be tested in fight against advanced cancers

By Daily Mail Reporter
A cannabis-like drug is to be tested on patients with advanced cancers by UK scientists.
The early stage trial will investigate the potential of dexanabinol for treating a range of solid tumours.
A similar Phase I study looking at brain cancer is already under way in the US. Results from both are expected next year.
New hope? An ingredient found in cannabis is being trialled to treat cancers
New hope? An ingredient found in cannabis is being trialled to treat cancers
Dexanabinol is from a family of compounds called cannabinoids and related to the active chemicals in cannabis. However, it is made in the laboratory and causes none of the psychological effects associated with the drug.
Lead researcher Professor Ruth Plummer, from the University of Newcastle, said: 'The starting point for this trial was to map networks of proteins that appear to have a role in cancer, identify points at which these networks could be disrupted, and then see if there were existing drugs to target these points.

'It was this novel approach - known as network pharmacology - that first highlighted the potential cancer-fighting properties of dexanabinol, which was originally developed to treat patients with severe head injuries. While this certainly illustrates that there may be compounds with real therapeutic potential related to those found in cannabis, it also points to the importance of applying rigorous scientific methods when selecting molecules that might have potential as cancer treatments.
Testing times; Scientists will be analysing whether a cannabis-like drug can be used to treat some forms of cancer
Testing times; Scientists will be analysing whether a cannabis-like drug can be used to treat some forms of cancer
'This is a Phase I trial, so the main aim will be to establish what dose is safe and assess any side effects. But we'll also be looking out to see what effect, if any, the drug has on the patient's cancer.'
Around 45 patients are being recruited to take part in the trial. All will have advanced solid tumours that cannot be helped by further existing treatment.
The study is being funded by the drug's manufacturer, UK-based e-Therapeutics.
It will be based at the Cancer Research UK and National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Experimental Cancer Medicine Centre in Newcastle.
Dr Joanna Reynolds, Cancer Research UK's director of centres, said: 'The potential anticancer properties of chemicals found in cannabis were first touched on by scientists in the 1970s.
'But it's only now that we have robust laboratory evidence in place, alongside reliable techniques for manufacturing safe and practical drugs related to these chemicals, that we're at the crucial stage of being able to embark on trials in cancer patients.
'It's the job of the Experimental Cancer Medicine Network to help speed up the journey of new drugs from the bench to the bedside and we're delighted to be supporting some of the first steps towards hopefully turning this painstaking research into new treatments that could benefit patients.'

Thursday, September 27, 2012

Arkansas court upholds first-in-the-South medical marijuana proposal

Published September 27, 2012
Associated Press

The Arkansas Supreme Court on Thursday upheld a proposed ballot measure that, if successful, would make the state the first in the South to legalize medical marijuana.
Justices rejected a challenge by a coalition of conservative groups who had asked the court to block the proposed initiated act from the November ballot or order the state to not count any votes cast on the issue.
The measure would allow patients with qualifying conditions to buy marijuana from nonprofit dispensaries with a doctor's recommendation. The proposal acknowledges that marijuana is still illegal under federal law, but the Coalition to Preserve Arkansas Values argued that it doesn't adequately explain that approved users could still face federal prosecution.
"We hold that it is an adequate and fair representation without misleading tendencies or partisan coloring," the court wrote. "Therefore, the act is proper for inclusion on the ballot at the general election on Nov. 6, 2012, and the petition is therefore denied."
Arkansas will be the first Southern state to put the medical marijuana question to voters. Seventeen states and the District of Columbia have legalized it in some fashion. Massachusetts voters are also expected to vote on the issue this fall, while the North Dakota Supreme Court ruled a medical marijuana initiative can't appear on that state's ballot.
Jerry Cox, the head of the Arkansas Family Council and a member of the coalition, declined to comment immediately on the ruling and said opponents planned a news conference later Thursday morning. The conservative coalition argued that Arkansas' 384-word ballot question doesn't accurately describe other consequences of passing the 8,700-word law, including a provision that would allow minors to use medical marijuana with parental consent.
Justices disagreed and said the proposed law is fairly summarized in the question that will appear on the ballot.
"Here, after reviewing the ballot title of 384 words, we conclude that the title informs the voters in an intelligible, honest and impartial manner of the substantive matter of the act," the ruling said.
The group behind the measure, Arkansans for Compassionate Care, told the court it believes the measure is sufficiently fair to go before voters. David Couch, an attorney for the group, said he was pleased with the ruling and said it allowed them to shift gears to building support for the measure's passage.
"Now that we've passed muster with the Supreme Court we'll begin our campaign to show the people of the state of Arkansas that this is truly a compassionate measure," Couch said.
Under the proposal, qualifying health conditions would include cancer, glaucoma, HIV, AIDS and Alzheimer's disease. The proposal also would allow qualifying patients or a designated caregiver to grow marijuana if the patient lives more than 5 miles from a dispensary.
The conservative coalition's members include leaders of the Arkansas Faith and Ethics Council, the Family Council Action Committee and the Families First Foundation.
Past efforts to put medical marijuana on the ballot in Arkansas have faltered, though voters in two cities in the state have approved referendums that encourage police to regard arrests for small amounts of marijuana as a low priority.
Supporters of the current proposal mounted an organized and well-funded campaign that surprised many political observers. Arkansans for Compassionate Care, the group advocating for the measure, won ballot access after submitting far more than the required 62,500 signatures.

Read more:

Medical-marijuana measure upheld for ballot

By Gavin Lesnick

— The Arkansas Supreme Court has ruled that a proposed initiated act to legalize the medical use of marijuana can appear on the November ballot.
In an opinion released Thursday morning, the court denied a petition filed by the Coalition to Preserve Arkansas Values. The group had argued that the ballot's name wasn't complete, didn't fully reflect the scope and impact of the proposal and would still violate federal law.
Associate Justice Karen R. Baker wrote in the 15-page opinion that the ballot name and title were acceptable, noting the latter "is not duly long, nor is it complex or misleading" and that it "clearly provides the purpose and scope of the Act."
"... [W]e hold that the popular name and ballot title are an intelligible, honest and impartial means of presenting the Act to the people for their consideration," she wrote. "We hold that it is an adequate and fair representation without misleading tendencies or partisan coloring."
Baker writes in the opinion that the coalition opposing the ballot measure did not "meet its burden to demonstrate that the Act clearly conflicts with any constitutional provision" in arguing that it would violate the law if passed.
"[The coalition] has asked this court to hold the Act unconstitutional based on hypothetical scenarios that may occur in the future, if the Act becomes a law," she wrote. "We decline to do so."
The secretary of state announced in August that the group supporting the medical marijuana measure — Arkansans for Compassionate Care — had turned in enough signatures to appear on the November ballot.
If passed, a doctor could approve a patient with a qualifying condition for the possession and use of marijuana as a treatment.
Read tomorrow's Arkansas Democrat-Gazette for full details.
Thank you for coming to the website of the Arkansas Democrat-Gazette. We're working to keep you informed with the latest breaking news.

No medicinal Value? How easy they forget the Past!

Not Growing Industrial Hemp

Not growing Industrial Hemp, is like starving next to a loaf of bread! (P.K.)


(2009 - causes of death - annual causes of death by cause)
Cause of death1Number
All causes2,436,652
Cardiovascular diseases779,367
Malignant neoplasms568,668
Lack of Health Insurance344,789
Drug induced237,485
Motor vehicle accidents36,284
Septicemia (infections)35,587
by Firearms31,224
Accidental poisoning30,504
Alcohol induced23,199
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)9,424
Viral hepatitis7,652
Cannabis (Marijuana)0

1 Based on the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Second Edition, 2004
2 Drug induced include both legal and illicit drugs.
3 As calculated in the American Journal of Public Health.

How Medical Marijuana is Giving a Six-Year-Old Boy New Life

By Nicole Flatow on Sep 18, 2012 at 11:40 am

Turning to marijuana was a last resort for father Jason David. His young son Jayden suffered from a rare and potentially fatal form of epilepsy, and a dozen prescription medications had failed to provide any relief.
But he discovered medical marijuana as a possible solution after seeing a news report about a teenager who was expelled from school for using marijuana to help control his seizures, and learned about forms cannabis that have no psychoactive effects. David explains in a video from the Los Angeles Times:
The worst days of my life were last April. I’ve never seen Jayden so bad in my life. He was literally dying in front of my face. […]
Seeing him having seizures all day long for two months straight, nothing was helping. After he has a seizure, it really takes a toll on him. He gets back up and he just wants to play and have fun like every other child.
I asked my doctor, I know it sounds crazy, but I have a serious question. What do you think about medical marijuana for my son? And he looked at me and said, “you’ve got a life and death situation. I would try anything to save your son’s life.” I had it for two weeks and I was scared to give it to him. And I said, you know what? I’m just gonna give it to him today.
That was the first day, thank god, Jayden ever went seizure-free in his life. The prescription drugs, I feel like they made my son a zombie. Every time I take off another pill, the better he gets.
Rather than smoking the plant itself, Jayden takes a solution made up mostly of cannabidiol, or CBD, a chemical derived from marijuana. CBD has been shown to relieve several other medical conditions, including symptoms from schnizophrenia and anxiety. Cannibas has been known as a treatment for epilepsy since ancient Chinese and Ayurvedic traditions, according to the LA Times.
But the dispensary where David obtains the CBD, the largest in the nation, is now the target of a Department of Justice enforcement action. Although medical marijuana is legal in California, prosecutors are seeking to shut down Harborside Health Center under federal law. As David told told the LA Times, shutting down Harborside could have tragic consequences for Jayden: “I’ve got about a three-week supply left now and I’m running out and I need some more and I can’t find any right now. What am I gonna do? If they shut down my place, where am I supposed to get it tested? How do I know if it has mold on it? How do I know if it doesn’t have pesticides on it? How am I gonna save my son’s life?”

Wednesday, September 26, 2012

HEMP Bio-Fueled Cars

Hemp Bio-Fueled Cars? The Benefits?

by Teri Wallace

Biodiesel is a vegetable oil-based fuel that runs in unmodified diesel engines – cars, buses, trucks, construction equipment, boats, generators, and oil home heating units. Biodiesel is usually made from hemp, soy or canola oil, and can also be made from recycled fryer oil (yes, from McDonalds or your local Chinese restaurant) or any other vegetable oil or animal tallow.
You can blend biodiesel with regular diesel or run 100% biodiesel. You can blend your percentages of biodiesel-to-diesel fuel at any ratio, at any time. This means you can be running b100 (100% biodiesel), get down to a quarter tank and add regular petroleum diesel and essentially be running b25 (25% biodiesel), then get down to near empty and add straight petroleum, straight biodiesel, or any percentage in between.
What are the benefits?
1) National security. Since biodiesel is made domestically, biodiesel reduces our dependence on foreign oil. That’s good.
2) National economy. Using biodiesel keeps our fuel buying dollars at home instead of sending it to foreign countries. This reduces our trade deficit and creates jobs.
3) Its sustainable & non-toxic. Biodiesel is 100% renewable… we’ll never run out of biodiesel. And if biodiesel gets into your water supply, there’s no problem – it’s just modified veggie oil! Heck, you can drink biodiesel if you so desire, but it tastes nasty (trust us).
4) Emissions. Biodiesel is nearly carbon-neutral, meaning it contributes almost zero emissions to global warming! Biodiesel also dramatically reduces other emissions fairly dramatically. We like clean air, how about you? Plus, the exhaust smells like popcorn or french fries!
5) Engine life. Studies have shown biodiesel reduces engine wear by as much as one half, primarily because biodiesel provides excellent lubricity. Even a 2% biodiesel/98% diesel blend will help.
6) Drivability. We have yet to meet anyone who doesn’t notice an immediate smoothing of the engine with biodiesel. Biodiesel just runs quieter, and produces less smoke.
Are there any negatives?
Of course. There is no perfect fuel.
1) Primarily that biodiesel is not readily available in much of the nation, although availability has jumped considerably in the last five years. Commercial consumption of biodiesel jumped from 500,000 gallons in 2000 to 15 million gallons in 2001 to 75 million gallons in 2006. And there’s no measure how much home-produced biodiesel there is.
2) Biodiesel will clean your injectors and fuel lines. If you have an old diesel vehicle, there’s a chance that your first few tanks of biodiesel could free up all the accumulated crud and clog your fuel filter. But this is a GOOD thing… think of it as kicking up dust around the house when you clean.
3) Biodiesel has a higher gel point. B100 (100% biodiesel) gets slushy a little under 32°F. But B20 (20% biodiesel, 80% regular diesel – more commonly available than B100) has a gel point of -15°F. Like regular diesel, the gel point can be lowered further with additives such as kerosene (blended into winter diesel in cold-weather areas).
4) Old vehicles (older than mid-90s) might require upgrades of fuel lines (a cheap, easy upgrade), as biodiesel can eat through certain types of rubber. Almost all new vehicles should have no problem with biodiesel.
5) Finally, the one emission that goes up with biodiesel is NOx. NOx contributes to smog. We feel that a slight increase (up to 15%) in NOx is greatly offset by the reduction in all other emissions and the major reduction in greenhouse gasses.

Monday, September 24, 2012

Cannabis And Cannabinoids

In English | En español

Questions About Cancer? 1-800-4-CANCER

Cannabis and Cannabinoids (PDQ®)

  • Last Modified: 08/10/2012

Laboratory/Animal/Preclinical Studies

Antitumor Effects
Appetite Stimulation
Cannabinoids are a group of 21-carbon–containing terpenophenolic compounds produced uniquely by Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica species.[1,2] These plant-derived compounds may be referred to as phytocannabinoids. Although delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the primary psychoactive ingredient, other known compounds with biologic activity are cannabinol, cannabidiol (CBD), cannabichromene, cannabigerol, tetrahydrocannabivarin, and delta-8-THC. CBD, in particular, is thought to have significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity without the psychoactive effect (high) of delta-9-THC.
Antitumor Effects
One study in mice and rats suggested that cannabinoids may have a protective effect against the development of certain types of tumors.[3] During this 2-year study, groups of mice and rats were given various doses of THC by gavage. A dose-related decrease in the incidence of hepatic adenoma tumors and hepatocellular carcinoma was observed in the mice. Decreased incidences of benign tumors (polyps and adenomas) in other organs (mammary gland, uterus, pituitary, testis, and pancreas) were also noted in the rats. In another study, delta-9-THC, delta-8-THC, and cannabinol were found to inhibit the growth of Lewis lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo .[4] In addition, other tumors have been shown to be sensitive to cannabinoid-induced growth inhibition.[5-8]
Cannabinoids may cause antitumor effects by various mechanisms, including induction of cell death, inhibition of cell growth, and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis invasion and metastasis.[9-12] Cannabinoids appear to kill tumor cells but do not affect their nontransformed counterparts and may even protect them from cell death. These compounds have been shown to induce apoptosis in glioma cells in culture and induce regression of glioma tumors in mice and rats. Cannabinoids protect normal glial cells of astroglial and oligodendroglial lineages from apoptosis mediated by the CB1 receptor.[13]
The effects of delta-9-THC and a synthetic agonist of the CB2 receptor were investigated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).[14] Both agents reduced the viability of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro and demonstrated antitumor effects in hepatocellular carcinoma subcutaneous xenografts in nude mice. The investigations documented that the anti-HCC effects are mediated by way of the CB2 receptor. Similar to findings in glioma cells, the cannabinoids were shown to trigger cell death through stimulation of an endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway that activates autophagy and promotes apoptosis. Other investigations have confirmed that CB1 and CB2 receptors may be potential targets in non-small cell lung carcinoma [15] and breast cancer.[16]
An in vitro study of the effect of CBD on programmed cell death in breast cancer cell lines found that CBD induced programmed cell death, independent of the CB1, CB2, or vanilloid receptors. CBD inhibited the survival of both estrogen receptor–positive and estrogen receptor–negative breast cancer cell lines, inducing apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner while having little effect on nontumorigenic, mammary cells.[17]
CBD has also been demonstrated to exert a chemopreventive effect in a mouse model of colon cancer.[18] In the experimental system, azoxymethane increased premalignant and malignant lesions in the mouse colon. Animals treated with azoxymethane and CBD concurrently were protected from developing premalignant and malignant lesions. In in vitro experiments involving colorectal cancer cell lines, the investigators found that CBD protected DNA from oxidative damage, increased endocannabinoid levels, and reduced cell proliferation.
Another investigation into the antitumor effects of CBD examined the role of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1).[12] ICAM-1 expression has been reported to be negatively correlated with cancer metastasis. In lung cancer cell lines, CBD upregulated ICAM-1, leading to decreased cancer cell invasiveness.
In an in vivo model using severe combined immunodeficient mice, subcutaneous tumors were generated by inoculating the animals with cells from human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines.[19] Tumor growth was inhibited by 60% in THC-treated mice compared with vehicle-treated control mice. Tumor specimens revealed that THC had antiangiogenic and antiproliferative effects. However, research with immunocompetent murine tumor models has demonstrated immunosuppression and enhanced tumor growth in mice treated with THC.[20,21]
In addition, both plant-derived and endogenous cannabinoids have been studied for anti-inflammatory effects. A mouse study demonstrated that endogenous cannabinoid system signaling is likely to provide intrinsic protection against colonic inflammation.[22] As a result, a hypothesis that phytocannabinoids and endocannabinoids may be useful in the risk reduction and treatment of colorectal cancer has been developed.[23-26]
Appetite Stimulation
Many animal studies have previously demonstrated that delta-9-THC and other cannabinoids have a stimulatory effect on appetite and increase food intake. It is believed that the endogenous cannabinoid system may serve as a regulator of feeding behavior. The endogenous cannabinoid anandamide potently enhances appetite in mice.[27] Moreover, CB1 receptors in the hypothalamus may be involved in the motivational or reward aspects of eating.[28]
Understanding the mechanism of cannabinoid-induced analgesia has been increased through the study of cannabinoid receptors, endocannabinoids, and synthetic agonists and antagonists. The CB1 receptor is found in both the central nervous system (CNS) and in peripheral nerve terminals. Similar to opioid receptors, increased levels of the CB1 receptor are found in regions of the brain that regulate nociceptive processing.[29] CB2 receptors, located predominantly in peripheral tissue, exist at very low levels in the CNS. With the development of receptor-specific antagonists, additional information about the roles of the receptors and endogenous cannabinoids in the modulation of pain has been obtained.[30,31]
Cannabinoids may also contribute to pain modulation through an anti-inflammatory mechanism; a CB2 effect with cannabinoids acting on mast cell receptors to attenuate the release of inflammatory agents, such as histamine and serotonin, and on keratinocytes to enhance the release of analgesic opioids has been described.[32-34] One study reported that the efficacy of synthetic CB1- and CB2-receptor agonists were comparable with the efficacy of morphine in a murine model of tumor pain.[35]
  1. Adams IB, Martin BR: Cannabis: pharmacology and toxicology in animals and humans. Addiction 91 (11): 1585-614, 1996. [PUBMED Abstract]
  2. Grotenhermen F, Russo E, eds.: Cannabis and Cannabinoids: Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutic Potential. Binghamton, NY: The Haworth Press, 2002.
  3. National Toxicology Program .: NTP toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of 1-trans-delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (CAS No. 1972-08-3) in F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice (gavage studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser 446 (): 1-317, 1996. [PUBMED Abstract]
  4. Bifulco M, Laezza C, Pisanti S, et al.: Cannabinoids and cancer: pros and cons of an antitumour strategy. Br J Pharmacol 148 (2): 123-35, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
  5. Sánchez C, de Ceballos ML, Gomez del Pulgar T, et al.: Inhibition of glioma growth in vivo by selective activation of the CB(2) cannabinoid receptor. Cancer Res 61 (15): 5784-9, 2001. [PUBMED Abstract]
  6. McKallip RJ, Lombard C, Fisher M, et al.: Targeting CB2 cannabinoid receptors as a novel therapy to treat malignant lymphoblastic disease. Blood 100 (2): 627-34, 2002. [PUBMED Abstract]
  7. Casanova ML, Blázquez C, Martínez-Palacio J, et al.: Inhibition of skin tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo by activation of cannabinoid receptors. J Clin Invest 111 (1): 43-50, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
  8. Blázquez C, González-Feria L, Alvarez L, et al.: Cannabinoids inhibit the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway in gliomas. Cancer Res 64 (16): 5617-23, 2004. [PUBMED Abstract]
  9. Guzmán M: Cannabinoids: potential anticancer agents. Nat Rev Cancer 3 (10): 745-55, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
  10. Blázquez C, Casanova ML, Planas A, et al.: Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by cannabinoids. FASEB J 17 (3): 529-31, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
  11. Vaccani A, Massi P, Colombo A, et al.: Cannabidiol inhibits human glioma cell migration through a cannabinoid receptor-independent mechanism. Br J Pharmacol 144 (8): 1032-6, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
  12. Ramer R, Bublitz K, Freimuth N, et al.: Cannabidiol inhibits lung cancer cell invasion and metastasis via intercellular adhesion molecule-1. FASEB J 26 (4): 1535-48, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
  13. Torres S, Lorente M, Rodríguez-Fornés F, et al.: A combined preclinical therapy of cannabinoids and temozolomide against glioma. Mol Cancer Ther 10 (1): 90-103, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  14. Vara D, Salazar M, Olea-Herrero N, et al.: Anti-tumoral action of cannabinoids on hepatocellular carcinoma: role of AMPK-dependent activation of autophagy. Cell Death Differ 18 (7): 1099-111, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  15. Preet A, Qamri Z, Nasser MW, et al.: Cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, as novel targets for inhibition of non-small cell lung cancer growth and metastasis. Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 4 (1): 65-75, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  16. Nasser MW, Qamri Z, Deol YS, et al.: Crosstalk between chemokine receptor CXCR4 and cannabinoid receptor CB2 in modulating breast cancer growth and invasion. PLoS One 6 (9): e23901, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  17. Shrivastava A, Kuzontkoski PM, Groopman JE, et al.: Cannabidiol induces programmed cell death in breast cancer cells by coordinating the cross-talk between apoptosis and autophagy. Mol Cancer Ther 10 (7): 1161-72, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  18. Aviello G, Romano B, Borrelli F, et al.: Chemopreventive effect of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol on experimental colon cancer. J Mol Med (Berl) 90 (8): 925-34, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
  19. Preet A, Ganju RK, Groopman JE: Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits epithelial growth factor-induced lung cancer cell migration in vitro as well as its growth and metastasis in vivo. Oncogene 27 (3): 339-46, 2008. [PUBMED Abstract]
  20. Zhu LX, Sharma S, Stolina M, et al.: Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits antitumor immunity by a CB2 receptor-mediated, cytokine-dependent pathway. J Immunol 165 (1): 373-80, 2000. [PUBMED Abstract]
  21. McKallip RJ, Nagarkatti M, Nagarkatti PS: Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol enhances breast cancer growth and metastasis by suppression of the antitumor immune response. J Immunol 174 (6): 3281-9, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
  22. Massa F, Marsicano G, Hermann H, et al.: The endogenous cannabinoid system protects against colonic inflammation. J Clin Invest 113 (8): 1202-9, 2004. [PUBMED Abstract]
  23. Patsos HA, Hicks DJ, Greenhough A, et al.: Cannabinoids and cancer: potential for colorectal cancer therapy. Biochem Soc Trans 33 (Pt 4): 712-4, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
  24. Liu WM, Fowler DW, Dalgleish AG: Cannabis-derived substances in cancer therapy--an emerging anti-inflammatory role for the cannabinoids. Curr Clin Pharmacol 5 (4): 281-7, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  25. Malfitano AM, Ciaglia E, Gangemi G, et al.: Update on the endocannabinoid system as an anticancer target. Expert Opin Ther Targets 15 (3): 297-308, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  26. Sarfaraz S, Adhami VM, Syed DN, et al.: Cannabinoids for cancer treatment: progress and promise. Cancer Res 68 (2): 339-42, 2008. [PUBMED Abstract]
  27. Mechoulam R, Berry EM, Avraham Y, et al.: Endocannabinoids, feeding and suckling--from our perspective. Int J Obes (Lond) 30 (Suppl 1): S24-8, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
  28. Fride E, Bregman T, Kirkham TC: Endocannabinoids and food intake: newborn suckling and appetite regulation in adulthood. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 230 (4): 225-34, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
  29. Walker JM, Hohmann AG, Martin WJ, et al.: The neurobiology of cannabinoid analgesia. Life Sci 65 (6-7): 665-73, 1999. [PUBMED Abstract]
  30. Meng ID, Manning BH, Martin WJ, et al.: An analgesia circuit activated by cannabinoids. Nature 395 (6700): 381-3, 1998. [PUBMED Abstract]
  31. Walker JM, Huang SM, Strangman NM, et al.: Pain modulation by release of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96 (21): 12198-203, 1999. [PUBMED Abstract]
  32. Facci L, Dal Toso R, Romanello S, et al.: Mast cells express a peripheral cannabinoid receptor with differential sensitivity to anandamide and palmitoylethanolamide. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92 (8): 3376-80, 1995. [PUBMED Abstract]
  33. Ibrahim MM, Porreca F, Lai J, et al.: CB2 cannabinoid receptor activation produces antinociception by stimulating peripheral release of endogenous opioids. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102 (8): 3093-8, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
  34. Richardson JD, Kilo S, Hargreaves KM: Cannabinoids reduce hyperalgesia and inflammation via interaction with peripheral CB1 receptors. Pain 75 (1): 111-9, 1998. [PUBMED Abstract]
  35. Khasabova IA, Gielissen J, Chandiramani A, et al.: CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists promote analgesia through synergy in a murine model of tumor pain. Behav Pharmacol 22 (5-6): 607-16, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]

Hemp~ The new Billion Dollar Crop!!!

New Billion Dollar Crop

Popular Mechanics, 1938

Published only a few months after hemp was banned as "The demon weed Marijuana" that made "Mexicans and negroes rape white women," this article proves more than anything else that the war on drugs has been a total farce.

Thursday, September 20, 2012

Hemp Oil & Your Skin

Hemp Oil
Hemp seed and oil has been called "Nature’s Perfect Food for Humanity" - a wealth of health for everyone.

The oil can be used as part of a nutritional programme to maintain and improve good health. With a pleasant nutty flavour, Hemp Seed Oil is ideal for use in salad dressings, mayonnaise, dips etc. It is not suitable for frying as this reduces the benefits.
Hemp has had a long-standing relationship with humanity; modern science reveals that it contains all the essential amino acids and essential fatty acids necessary for human life, as well as a rare protein known as globule edestins that is very similar to the globulin found in human blood plasma.
Four years after the Marijuana Tax Act passed in the US, a researcher writing for a 1941 edition of Science lamented the loss of access to the hemp seed's rare and important globule edistins; "Passage of the Marijuana Law of 1937 has placed restrictions upon trade in hempseed that, in effect, amount to prohibition....”
Hemp seeds contain the most balanced and richest natural single source of essential oils for human consumption. The E.F.A.'s not only help to restore wasting bodies, but also improve damaged immune systems, so it is not so surprising that modern researchers have studied them in relationship to the modern immune attacking AIDS virus. (Eidlman, M.D., Hamilton, ED.D, Ph.D 1992).
Hemp oil is natures most balanced oil for human nutrition (3:1 LA to LNA ratio) and is easily digestible; in fact this oil could provide all of our Essential Fatty Acid (EFA) requirements for life, due to the balanced 80% EFA content of the oil.
Research has shown that this nutritional oil was once a part of worldwide dietary intake, as it was one of the first cultivated crops. All natural foods contain some substances, which are essential to life. Oils for example, found in nuts and seeds, contain significantly higher amounts of essential fatty acids than other foods.
Much information about Hemp has been systematically removed from written texts since the 1930's and is now difficult to find. Many of the myths about hemp, perpetuated by governments to this day relating to hemp being a drug crop are incorrect and simply propaganda created to make way for synthetic man made products.
Alpha Linolenic acid (LNA) Deficiency Symptoms - Omega 3
The symptoms of LNA deficiency include: Growth retardation, weakness, impairment of vision and learning ability, motor incoordination, tingling in arms and legs, behavioural changes.
Adding LNA back into the diet from which it is missing can reverse these symptoms. Other symptoms that can result from LNA (or w3) deficiency include; High triglycerides, high blood pressure, sticky platelets, tissue inflammation, edema, dry skin, mental deterioration, low metabolic rate, some kinds of immune dysfunction
Linoleic acid (LA) Deficiency Symptoms - Omega 6
The symptoms of LA deficiency include: Eczema-like skin eruptions, loss of hair, liver degeneration, behavioural disturbances, kidney degeneration, excessive water loss through the skin accompanied by thirst, drying up of glands, susceptibility to infections, failure of wound healing, sterility in males, miscarriage in females, arthritis-like conditions, heart and circulatory problems, growth retardation. Prolonged absence of LA from the diet is fatal. Adding LA back into the diet from which it is missing can reverse all of the deficiency symptoms.
In 1955 the Czechoslovakian Tubercular Nutrition Study concluded that hemp seed was the "Only food that can successfully treat the consumptive disease tuberculosis, in which the nutritive processes are impaired and the body wastes away"(Robinson 1996).
Dr Johana Budwig – A pioneer of Essential Fatty Acid Research
The seven-time Nobel Prize nominee, Dr. Johana Budwig, a pioneer of E.F.A research, reported success in treating heart infraction, arthritis, cancer and other common diseases with massive doses of E.F.A.'s. Budwig's research indicates that many of these killer and crippling diseases may be caused in part by our diet of saturated fat and trans-fat, which are present in much of the food we eat. According to this healing Doctor, saturated fat and trans-fat befuddle the electronic charge of the unsaturated oils, which are present in cell membranes.
‘This decreases the cells ability to receive and store electrons from the sun, which according to Budwig is a key factor in human health.’

Alternatively, a balanced diet of E.F.A’s keeps the charge of the unsaturated fats in the cells membranes working properly and electron rich. As Budwig herself explains:
"The sun's rays are very much in harmony with humans. It is no coincidence that we love the sun. The resonance in our biological tissue is so strongly tuned to the absorption of solar energy that physicists who occupy themselves with this scientific phenomenon, the quantum biologists say that there is nothing on earth that has a higher concentration of solar energy photons than humans. This enrichment with solar energy depends strongly on the like energy aspects, a wavelength that is compatible with humans, and this is supported when we eat foods that have electromagnetic waves of solar rays--the photon. An abundance of these electrons, which are tuned to the solar energy frequency, exist, for example, in many seed oils. Scientifically these oils have even been designated as electron-rich, essential, highly unsaturated fats. (Budwig 1992)
Budwig states that when we began to homogenize vegetable oils so that they would store better, we unknowingly changed their E.F.A. content into saturated fats in the ensuing heating process. These E.F.A. robbed, thus electron poor "promote the emergence of cancer.... They behave like tar, as insulators relative to the transport of electrons in living tissue." Alternatively, "electron-rich highly unsaturated oils... increase the absorption, storage and utilization of the sun's energy".
Budwig relates that after her ailing patients have been treated with an E.F.A. rich diet and then "lie in the sun, they notice they feel much better-rejuvenated"; (Budwig 1992) "On the other hand, nowadays we frequently observe that the heart fails on sunny beaches, and not infrequently heart attacks occur. We can observe some individuals in our time experiencing stress from exposure to the sun’s energy, whereas others respond with dynamic improvement in all vital functions. The stimulating effect that sunshine has on the secretions of the liver, gall bladder, pancreas, bladder, and salivary glands is easy to observe. These organs only dry out upon exposure to sunshine when the substance that stimulates secretions is missing. The decisive factor in all these observations is whether the surface-active, electron-rich, highly unsaturated fats are present as a resonating system for solar energy, or, if they are missing. The doctor tells cancer patients to avoid the sun; that they can't tolerate the sun. As soon as these patients--also cancer patients--were placed on my oil-Protein diet for just 2-3 days, i.e. a diet that contains an abundant supply of essential fats, they were able to tolerate the sun very well. Yes, they emphasize how well they suddenly feel in the sun, how the life forces are stimulated and that they feel dynamically energized."(Budwig 1992)
In times of worry about increased exposure to the sun's rays the E.F.A. rich oils provided by hemp may offer us hope. In her writings about the sun's effect on the cell membrane's electrons, Budwig referred to the work of the quantum physicist Dessauer, "If it were possible to increase the concentration of solar electrons tenfold in this biological electron rich molecule, man would live to be 10,000 years old."
Benefits of Cold Pressing
Oils should be pressed with a minimum of heat because the higher the temperature of the oil the faster it is destroyed by light, oxygen and other chemical reactions. The shape and properties of Fatty-acid molecules can change lowering their nutritional and biological value.
In the UK we do not have restrictions on pressing oil from live seed unlike America where the seed has to be killed by high temperatures to allow it to be imported. With this seed is it is not possible to press fresh living oil that remains stable with a longer shelf life. Hemp oil is legal in the UK.
How to use
With a pleasant nutty flavour, Hemp Seed Oil is ideal for use in salad dressings, mayonnaise, dips etc. Not suitable for frying as this reduces the benefits. May be taken as a nutritional supplement for general health and well being.
We recommend mixing with Barley Grass Powder, providing the benefits of the soluble proteins in Barley Grass Powder, along with all the huge array of other nutrients. (Organic yogurt can be used as an alternative Barley Grass Powder) Use 1 dessertspoons of Hemp oil to one heaped dessertspoon of Barley grass juice powder, (or half a cup of organic yogurt) half a glass of chemical free water, (do not use tap water, the chlorine in tap water turns nutrients into toxic, even carcinogenic chemicals!). This mix can be taken once or twice daily. The combination forms the basis of a powerful therapy that Dr Budwig used, and helps to deliver sunlight from sensible sun exposure to the cells for maximum benefit.
Hemp oil can also be used externally on the skin, easily absorbed and moisturising, suitable for poor condition skin.
From our batch tests, it appears that rancidity increases at an exponential rate. I.E. low PV value at time of pressing takes longer to oxidise. We have found that our oil has the ability to be stable for at least six months if stored in the refrigerator. Oil is pressed fresh for each order and then dispatched to the customer in dark brown glass bottles.
How much is needed?
Recommended daily intake for a person with an average build/ body fat profile is 2-4 dessert spoons (up to 50 ml) per day, or in the case of therapy this can be increased up to 150ml per day for approximately 7 days then reverting to the normal daily intake amount. The requirement of oil intake is now widely accepted as being 15%-20% of calorific requirement (daily average of 2000 calories for an average adult). EFA oils contain embodied energy of 9 calories per ml, which is mainly used by the body for structural, hormonal and electrical functions, rather than energy.
What are the beneficial properties of Hemp Seed Oil?
Because Hemp Seed Oil is such a rich source of both LA (Omega 6) and LNA (Omega 3) in balanced proportions, conditions caused by deficiencies in both can be treated with one oil.
The functions of LNA include: Production of smooth skin increased stamina, speeds healing, increases vitality, brings a feeling of calmness, reduces inflammation, water retention, platelet stickiness and blood pressure, enhances immune functions, reduces the pain and swelling of arthritis, can reverse pre-menstrual syndrome, can treat bacterial infections, brain development in children.
The functions of LA include
Energy production, growth vitality, mental state, oxygen transfer, formation of cell membrane, recovery from fatigue, secretion production in exocrine and endocrine glands, formation of prostaglandin's (to maintain cardiovascular system) keeping body fluids liquid, helping immune system resist and fight infection, prevention of allergies, functioning of heart tissue
The functions of GLA include
Conversion of LA to the beneficial prostaglandin's, cholesterol lowering actions, useful in treating degenerative diseases. The Oleic Acid (Omega 9) contained in Hemp Seed Oil helps keep arteries supple because of its fluidity. In excess Oleic acid can interfere with EFA's and prostaglandin's.
The low level of Stearic acid (18:0) in Hemp Seed Oil is beneficial as high levels of Stearic acid are more likely to form flow-impeding clots in blood vessels and work against the healing qualities of the EFA's.
  • Palmitic acid (16:0) commonly found as a high percentage in animal fats and tropical oils, it raises cholesterol levels.
  • Vitamins: are also present notably C, E, B1, B2 and carotene in a fat soluble, easily digestible form.
  • Minerals: mainly Phosphorus, Calcium, Potassium and Magnesium.
Please note, oils that have been high temperature and solvent extracted then refined (most oils in the supermarkets) do not have the benefits left in them but contain detrimental Trans-fatty acids from hydrogenation.
EFA's increase metabolic rate, therefore increasing fat burn-off, helping you to become slim. Not to be seen as a singular solution, exercise and good eating habits need to be taken into account.

Combining Barley Grass with Hemp Oil
Mixing Hemp Oil with Barley Grass Powder, provides the benefits of the soluble proteins in Barley Grass Powder, along with all the huge array of other nutrients. Use 1 or 2 dessertspoons of Hemp oil to one heaped dessertspoon of Barley grass juice powder, half a glass of chemical free water, (do not use tap water, the chlorine in tap water turns nutrients into toxic, even carcinogenic chemicals!). This mix can be taken once or twice daily. It is the combination of the proteins in Barley Grass Powder that protect the Hemp oil from degradation in the body. The combination forms the basis of a powerful therapy that Dr Budwig used, and helps to deliver sunlight from sensible sun exposure to the cells for maximum benefit.

Information sourced from Udo Erasmus excellent book "Fats that heal - Fats that kill"
Other recommended reading:
Kenneth Jones "Nutritional and Medical guide to Hemp Seed" ISBN-0-962563897
Dr. Johanna Budwig "Flax Oil as a true aid against arthritis, heart infraction, cancer and other diseases" ISBN-0-9695272-1-7.