Friday, May 30, 2014

House Tells DEA To Leave State Hemp Programs Alone!

Derek Cross
WASHINGTON -- House members early Friday blocked the Drug Enforcement Administration from using funds to interfere in state-legal industrial hemp research, a rebuke to the agency less than a month after it seized hemp seeds intended for Kentucky's pilot program.
Two hemp-related amendments to a DEA funding bill introduced by Rep. Thomas Massie (R-Ky.) and Rep. Suzanne Bonamici (D-Ore.) prohibit the Department of Justice, including the DEA, from blocking states' importation of hemp seeds, and from preventing states from implementing laws authorizing industrial hemp activities made legal under this year's federal farm bill.
Massie’s amendment passed 246-162, and Bonamici’s was approved 237-170. The Senate will likely consider its own appropriations bill for the DEA and Justice Department, and the House amendments would have to survive a joint conference before going into effect.
"The DEA has more important things to do than interfere with legal activities at the state level," Rep. Earl Blumenauer (D-Ore.) said. "We need to remove the cloud of uncertainty,"
Massie said Kentucky was forced into a "waste of time and money and the court system's limited resources" during a legal battle with the DEA over its hemp seeds this month. “The DEA is not above Congress, it’s not above the law,” Massie added. “This amendment simply asks the DEA to follow existing laws.”
"Farmers are unable to get the seed they need in order to grow their legal crop," said Rep. Jared Polis (D-Colo.). "It's really hard to grow industrial hemp, and the DEA without any clear reason, any argument, any sense, throws itself down as a roadblock to success."
But Reps. Bob Goodlatte (R-Va.) and Frank Wolf (R-Va.) opposed the hemp seed amendment.
“If you take the DEA out of the process, you’re going to have a situation where this law will be honored in name only and not used for the purpose it is intended, which is research,” Goodlatte said. “You cannot determine the THC limits of cannabis plants simply by looking at them. They need to be examined. The DEA fulfills that role.”
Fifteen states have legalized industrial hemp production, and about two dozen others have introduced legislation that would authorize research, set up a regulatory framework or legalize the growing of industrial hemp.
As Kentucky prepared to launch its hemp-growing project, the DEA seized 250-pound shipment of industrial hemp seeds at the Louisville airport this month. Kentucky sued the DEA for seeds' release and took possession a week later after obtaining a DEA permit.
The DEA action incensed Democratic and Republican lawmakers involved in the new industrial hemp laws, and was condemned by Kentucky Agriculture Commissioner James Comer, Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell (R-Ky.), his Democratic challenger Alison Lundergan Grimes, Rep. Earl Blumenauer (D-Ore.) and Sen. Rand Paul (R-Ky.).
Hemp is the same plant species as marijuana -- cannabis sativa -- but it contains little to no THC, the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana associated with the "high" sensation.
Hemp, sometimes called marijuana's "sober cousin," has a long history in America and has been used in a wide range of household products, including paper, cosmetics and textiles. In the 1700s, American colonial farmers were required by law to grow the plant, and it was used for hundreds of years in the U.S. to make rope and lamp oil.
American hemp production peaked in 1943, with more than 150 million pounds from 146,200 harvested acres. Production dropped to zero in the late-1950s as a result of rising anti-drug sentiment and competition from synthetic fibers. Story from:

Wednesday, May 21, 2014

Hemp As A Bio-Fuel Is One Step Closer To Reality

RENO, Nev., May 1, 2014 /PRNewswire/ -- Discovery Minerals LTD. (OTC PINK: DSCR)  (PINKSHEETS: DSCR) is pleased to provide shareholders with further information regarding the Joint Venture (JV) with Syngar Technologies.  
A research study concluded that Syngar's PLUSWave technology increased ethanol production by an overall average of 26%.  The PLUSWave technology optimized the conversion of cellulose to sugars and enhanced ethanol yield.  The proposed pilot project will utilize Cellunol Inc.'s proprietary technology to reduce costs and speed the pre-treatment of cellulose materials to form a slurry suitable for fermentation into ethanol.
With the worldwide increase in demand for oil, concern over the environmental impact of the use of fossil fuels and the challenge of sourcing a sustainable crop to provide the cellulose needed for Bio-Fuel fermentation, hemp may very well be part of the solution.
Corn based ethanol is the Bio-Fuel most favored by current United States government subsidies for renewable fuels. Hemp is an improvement over corn-based ethanol on several counts: higher soil conservation, nearly non-existent herbicide & pesticide requirements, higher yields, and greater suitability for cellulosic ethanol production, as opposed to either grains or corn. When compared to other plant species of active interest in Bio-Fuel production, hemp derives 100% more cellulose than species under active investigation.  Production costs for corn-based ethanol is nearly twice that of estimated production costs for hemp derived ethanol.  Hemp and its related species provide denser cellulose content than corn, higher sugar content, and derives higher ethanol yields per metric ton at lower costs.
Hemp is found to be a superior cultivar for Bio-Fuel production.  Hemp exhibits far superior ethanol yields per unit biomass compared to corn.  Pretreatment is necessary to alter the cellular structure of the biomass at hand.  Specifically, lignin presents a significant stumbling-block to the fermentation of cellulosic material. Pretreatment procedures are primarily aimed at breaking down lignin.  The challenge of stripping lignin from lignin bound cellulosic plant matter is the primary complexity that must be overcome prior to the direct conversion of cellulose to ethanol. In conclusion, Discovery's JV pilot project intends to overcome these challenges and establish a new industry standard for the pre-treatment process of Hemp in Bio-Fuel production.
About Syngar and PLUSWave:
The Company is a private Canadian company based in Edmonton, Alberta. Syngar licensed a technology, which we call "Pulsed Low Ultra Sound Wave" (PLUSWave) Technology. The PLUS Wave TM license is a worldwide and exclusive for application in biofuels. The PLUSWave Technology uses specific and proprietary ultrasound frequencies, at specific power levels, over set time intervals to stimulate the fermentation growth of algae, bacteria, fungus or yeast microorganisms by upwards of 30 - 50%.
About Discovery Minerals LTD.:
Discovery Minerals Ltd., (OTC: DSCR) is a production stage company formed to acquire and develop natural resource properties. Activities include gold, precious metals and petroleum minerals, including rare earth minerals production and sales. The Company initiated a new program to evaluate undervalued assets, including clean tech and alternative energy investments, for potential addition to its portfolio.
Safe Harbor: This release includes forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 27E of the Securities Act of 1934. Statements contained in this release that are not historical facts may be deemed to be forward-looking statements. Investors are cautioned that forward-looking statements are inherently uncertain. Actual performance and results may differ materially from that projected or suggested herein due to certain risks and uncertainties including, without limitation, ability to obtain financing and regulatory and shareholder approval for anticipated actions.
Contact Person:
Bill McNerny
+1(310)961-4654 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting +1(310)961-4654 FREE  end_of_the_skype_highlighting

SOURCE Discovery Minerals LTD.

Tuesday, May 20, 2014

Cellular Respiration & Photosynthesis

Cellular Respiration & Photosynthesis

Plant Cell Diagram
Plants use a process of breathing called cellular respiration. It begins with a process called photosynthesis that absorbs sunlight and breathes carbon dioxide (CO2). Plants turn carbon dioxide into oxygen. Plants also create cellulose fibers. by turning glucose into cellulose; that's how plants grow!
Burning hemp releases the same amount of CO2 as it absorbs in its life cycle - closed loop! No fake carboon taxes.
Cellular respiration, also known as 'oxidative metabolism', is one of the key ways a cell gains useful energy. Nutrients commonly used by animal and plant cells in respiration include glucose, amino acids and fatty acids, and a common oxidizing agent (electron acceptor) is molecular oxygen (O2).
Photosynthesis (from the Greek φώτο- [photo-], "light," and σύνθεσις [synthesis], "putting together", "composition") is a process that converts carbon dioxide (CO2 AL GORE) into organic compounds, especially sugars, using the energy from sunlight. Photosynthesis evolved early in the evolutionary history of life, when all forms of life on Earth were microorganisms and the atmosphere had much more carbon dioxide.
2n CO2 + 2n H2O + photons → 2(CH2O)n + n O2 + 2n A

Glucose C6H12O6 (equals 6 water + 6 carbons). Glucose (Glc), a simple sugar (monosaccharide) is an important carbohydrate. Glucose is one of the main products of photosynthesis and starts cellular respiration. "Glucose" comes from the Greek word glukus (γλυκύς), meaning "sweet." The suffix "-ose" denotes a sugar.
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula (C6H10O5), a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to over ten thousand β(1→4) linked D-glucose units. Cellulose is the most common organic compound on Earth. About 33% of all plant matter is cellulose (the cellulose content of cotton is 90% and that of wood is 40-50%)
Fiber, also spelled fibre, is a class of materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. They are very important in the biology of both plants and animals, for holding tissues together. Human uses for fibers are diverse. They can be spun into filaments, string or rope, used as a component of composite materials, or matted into sheets to make products such as paper or felt. Fibers are often used in the manufacture of other materials. Synthetic fibers can be produced very cheaply and in large amounts compared to natural fibers, but natural fibers enjoy some benefits, such as comfort, over their man-made counterparts.
Anatomy of a Plant Cell

 Information from: ReLegalize.Info

Wednesday, May 7, 2014

Hemp can be that Bio Fuel ~ George Washington Carver and Henry Ford Shared a Bio-fuel Vision

Henry Ford & George Washington Carver 

PHOTO (select to view enlarged photo)
George Washington Carver and Henry Ford shared a vision of a future in which agricultural products would be put to new uses to create products and industries.

Though worlds apart, George Washington Carver and Henry Ford shared a vision of a future in which agricultural products would be put to new uses to create products and industries.
One idea both men worked on more than 60 years ago -- biofuels -- is again in vogue as America seeks to reduce its dependence on foreign oil.
"Henry Ford was ahead of his time on this. He knew he needed fuel for transportation, and if he could develop something that was good for agriculture too, it would be a good match," said Dick Baker, a tech leader at Ford's powertrain, research and advanced engineering department.
"Henry also knew of Carver's work and said 'that's somebody I need to learn more about,' " said Baker.
That was because Carver, born a slave in Missouri during the Civil War, had become a world-famous botanist by the 1930s, famed for his research into the many uses of peanuts, soybeans and other plants. Over the years, Carver promoted the idea that such plants could be turned into plastics, paint, fuel and other products.
Ford was interested in the same things. Besides his legendary work creating plastic car parts derived from soybeans, Ford had long believed that ethanol (or grain alcohol) should be produced as an alternative fuel.
"All the world is waiting for a substitute for gasoline," Ford said in 1916. "The day is not far distant when, for every one of those barrels of gasoline, a barrel of alcohol must be substituted."
During the early days of Prohibition, he even suggested turning Michigan's idled breweries into distilleries to make denatured alcohol for fuel in cars and trucks, noted historian Ford Bryan. That went nowhere since Prohibition doomed the idea of any large-scale switch to alcohol production.
The automaker learned of Carver following his donations to the Tuskegee Institute (now Tuskegee University) in Alabama where the botanist was a faculty member, Bryan said.
At Tuskegee, Carver had promoted the use of crop rotation -- planting such nitrogen-rich crops as peanuts, sweet potatoes and soybeans -- to improve farmland depleted by years of raising cotton. In so doing, he also worked on hundreds of new uses for such crops.
Though he's often credited with inventing hundreds of uses for the peanut alone, Carver left few formulas or detailed records, making such claims by admirers hard to verify.
By the late 1930s, Carver and Ford were corresponding on a variety of subjects, including new industrial uses for soybeans and other plants. Ford had also met with Carver in Dearborn and at Ford's estate in Georgia and visited him at Tuskegee.
At first glance, they must have seemed like a strange mix -- the billionaire industrialist from the North and the modest scientist and naturalist from the South. But Ford regarded Carver as a contemporary. Both men had been born on farms during the Civil War and both had sought, in their own ways, to improve the lot of the common man.
After Thomas Edison died, the automaker even called Carver "the greatest of all my inspiring friends." To honor him, Ford also had a replica of Carver's log cabin birthplace built amid the other historic buildings at Greenfield Village in Dearborn. In addition, Ford helped outfit a laboratory for Carver and had an elevator installed in a Tuskegee dormitory so the botanist could get to his lab more easily in his later years.
While certainly forward-thinking, the idea that agriculture could be used to create alternative fuels wasn't totally new with Carver and Ford. The German inventor Rudolph Diesel had created an engine that ran on peanut oil in 1900. But both Carver and Ford believed that petroleum supplies would one day become limited. And both promoted the alternative uses of soybeans, which Ford used to make car parts in the 1930s.
This interest culminated in 1942, when Ford showcased a car with a plastic body made from soybeans. Attached to a tubular frame, the body weighed 30 percent less than a steel car and was much more flexible and durable. The experimental car was also equipped to run on ethanol rather than gasoline but such a novel idea failed to catch on.
By that time, huge new oil fields were being discovered and petroleum had become much more cost-effective than plant-based ethanol, said Baker.
"Agricultural fuels take a fair amount of processing to create, whereas petroleum comes out of the ground and just needs refining," Baker said. "The principles were right for what Ford and Carver were doing in the lab, but they didn't have the tools we do now to go big-time with the idea.
"Now, we're revisiting their old story with new tools, and exciting things are going on in the laboratory again," he said.
More than 60 years later, the ethanol-fueled dreams of Carver and Ford are becoming a reality.